lua installation

Install Lua in Linux

You can install lua in Linux Mint/Debian/Ubuntu.. You can find all verions of lua here.

tar zxf lua-5.3.1.tar.gz
cd lua-5.3.1
make linux test

Finally, if test have passed, then install lua into the right place by running sudo make install:

einverne@mint ~/Downloads/lua-5.3.1 $ sudo make install
[sudo] password for einverne:
cd src && mkdir -p /usr/local/bin /usr/local/include /usr/local/lib /usr/local/man/man1 /usr/local/share/lua/5.3 /usr/local/lib/lua/5.3
cd src && install -p -m 0755 lua luac /usr/local/bin
cd src && install -p -m 0644 lua.h luaconf.h lualib.h lauxlib.h lua.hpp /usr/local/include
cd src && install -p -m 0644 liblua.a /usr/local/lib
cd doc && install -p -m 0644 lua.1 luac.1 /usr/local/man/man1

According to the output, we know that lua header files are located under /usr/local/include. And liblua.a lib is located under /usr/local/lib. This two paths may be used later when coding with C/C++. And most important thing executalbe file is located under /usr/local/bin. Most of the Linux distributions are installed lua by default. But most of them don’t have liblua.a installed.

Install Lua on Mac OS X

If you want to build from source code like under linux, just change make linux test into make macosx test. And all the following steps are the same as I mentioned in the Linux section.

If you want a more convenient way to install lua, you can download binary package here. And click next and next to finish installation.Default installation path is same as in Linux.

And id you are using Homebrew just run brew install lua, everything is done.

And you can find more ways to install lua on

For other OS

please see:

Testing Lua

After installation , run lua -v to check the lua version. Test lua by printing “hello world” using following code. Run lua in terminal:

einverne@mint ~ $ lua
Lua 5.3.1  Copyright (C) 1994-2015, PUC-Rio
> print "hello world"
hello world

Type Control+D to exit.

lua IDE

If you want to find a lua IDE, I highly recommend Zerobrane Studio. It is cross-platform and support different versions of lua from 5.1 to lastest 5.3. And it has a debugger build-in, which is great for debug lua code from local or remote. It is worth to have a try.

2015-10-31 lua , linux

Things to do after install Linux Mint

I have changed my desktop environment to Linux, and after I tried Ubuntu and Debian, I finally choose the Linux Mint distribution. I think there are some reasons why this distribution take the first place in distrowatch. User-friendly desktop environment and convenient software package manager make me very comfortable. Cause it is based on the Debian and Ubuntu, most of the applications are familiar.

Install a theme

The simplest way to install a new Cinnamon theme is with the Themes manager in System settings.

Go to System Settings -> Themes -> Get More Online -> Refresh list. You can choose Most Popular or Latest. The theme will be installed to your hidden folder ~/.themes

Dark Blue Glass

I highly recommend my modified Dark Blue Glass theme link. It is a mix of Dark Glass and mint numix blue theme. Or you can find more themes on the following sites:


You can install a new icon set in two ways. One is by adding a PPA. You add the PPA, install the icon set. But you won’t find icon sets for all the icon themes. Therefore, the other way round is to download the compressed file and extract it to ~/.icons or ~/.local/share/icon . If this directory doesn’t exist, create one using the following command:

mkdir ~/.icons

The icons extracted in the above directory will be available for the current user only. If you want the icons to be available for all the users, you should extract the icons to /usr/share/icons .

Now, once you have installed the icon set, you can use a Unity Tweak Tool to change the icon theme. Use the following command to install Unity Tweak Tool:

sudo apt-get install unity-tweak-tool

Or in Linux mint you can just change icons under setting -> theme -> icons.

I highly recommend this one: papirus icons

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:varlesh-l/papirus-pack
sudo apt update
sudo apt install papirus-icons

Software Sources

You didn’t need to edit/etc/apt/sources.list and files under /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ mannually. All customs can be changed through UI. Just click “start menu” and choose the “Software Sources”. And this application can even custom the PPAs.

linux mint software sources managers

Necessary applications


First is web browser, and of course Chrome. I am crazy about Google, and all Google related things. I have used Chrome since year 2011, after I am tried of the Firefox’s slowness. Although Firefox become more and more light, faster this years, I get used to Chrome. And what Chrome done makes me really happy. First thing is the bookmark and extension etc sync. I can reach all of my staff and customizations, after I login into my account. I don’t even need to worry about anything. All my Apps, Extensions, Settings, Autofill informations, History, Themes, Bookmarks, Passwords, and even Open tabs always follow my account. I can reach my opening tab on desktop from my Android phone. I can reopen bookmarks on my home laptop, which I added in my laboratory computer. And I can open chrome://history page to check all current opening tags from signed-in devices, and even check the unread article in the opening tab on my phone and browser all my chrome history.

sogou input method

It is necessary to have an input method for typing Chinese which I speak. I choose the sogou input method, because it is easy to use and have a very Good word dictionary. Sogou input method is based on fcitx. In Linux mint setting panel, we have the Language setting, we can choose to install fcitx components.

More detail information can be found in this blog article.

Following can be done through user interface, no need to run. Pasting here only for reference.

sudo apt-get install fcitx fcitx-table-wubi-large fcitx-frontend-all fcitx-frontend-gtk2 fcitx-frontend-gtk3 fcitx-frontend-qt4 fcitx-config-gtk fcitx-ui-classic fcitx-module-kimpanel fcitx-module-dbus fcitx-libs-qt
sudo apt-get install fcitx fcitx-bin fcitx-config-common fcitx-config-gtk fcitx-data fcitx-frontend-all fcitx-module-cloudpinyin fcitx-module-dbus fcitx-module-kimpanel fcitx-module-x11 fcitx-modules fcitx-qimpanel-configtool

After installation, “start”, “Fcitx Configuration” can config the input method, just add “Sogou Pinyin” to the panel.


Use to cross China’s great firewall. Don’t need to talk more.

 pip install shadowsocks # install command line tool

If pip is missing, install pip first.

PPA is for Ubuntu >= 14.04.

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:hzwhuang/ss-qt5
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install shadowsocks-qt5

To install Qt version of shadowsocks. From:GitHub.

Nvidia driver

“System settings” , “Driver Manager”, choose the right latest driver and install. After installation, you will find Nvidia icon at the right-bottom corner. Double click the icon to open the setting panel. In order to save the battery , you can use Intel(Power Saving Mode) for most time. And if choose NVIDIA(Performance Mode) for high performance need.

Nvidia driver


Install hardinfo tool to check hardware information through GUI

 sudo apt-get install hardinfo

System tools

If there is no special instruction, all of the following applications can be installed from the Software Manager in Linux Mint.

gnome do

As it official introduction said “Do things as quickly as possible (but no quicker) with your files, bookmarks, applications, music, contacts, and more!”. I set a shortcut Alt+Space to launch Gnome do. And you can just type several keys to start any application quickly.

install following package:

  • gnome-do
  • gnome-do-plugins


Use F12 to open a terminal. Dropdown terminal, you can right click the terminal after you press F12 to configure your guake.


“PlayOnLinux is a front-end for wine. It permits you to easily install Windows Games and software on Linux. It is advised to have a functional internet connection.” I use playonlinux to install Evernote and cloudmusic(网易云音乐). Although I met a lot of problems during installation of Evernote. But finally evernote 5.8.x can be installed on wine 1.7.x.

There are several packages you need to install to make PlayOnLinux work.

  • wine
  • wine mono
  • wine gecho
  • ttf-mscorefonts-installer


Most of the following can be installed from default Software Manager. Just type name of the application and search then click install.


cloud music client and my favourite music client. Here is the link to it’s official site, where you can found clients for all platforms include linux.


my favourite cloud notebook with a very clean Android client.


Linux mint 17 has a default screenshot software called Screenshot. It is a very simple screenshot software. Shutter is more powerful.


Sync all my files. When I installed Dropbox through it’s offical installer, there was a problem I cannot connect to Dropbox directly from China. Here is a solution to redirect connections to shadowsocks sock5 proxy. You should install proxychains.

sudo apt install proxychains
# config socks4 9050  To socks5 1080 which is the default of shadowsocks
vi /usr/local/etc/proxychains.conf
# then use proxychains to start dropbox
proxychains4 dropbox start -i

Then dropbox will start to start and install, then after installation you can set sock5 proxy in dropbox settings.


Baidu pan linux port. It is really a great work. Thank the author.

You can download here


Remote desktop connection client able to display and control a remote desktop seesion. It supports multiple network protocols in an integrated and consistant user interface. Currently RDP, VNC, NX, XDMCP and SSH protocols are supported.


linux firewall.


E-book manager, 电子书管理. It is very efficient when you plug in kindle using USB port Calibre is prepare to serve.


Evernote like cloud notebook client. Find more information here. You can install through PPA:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:wiznote-team
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install wiznote


one of the screenrecoders I use.


Best image and picture manager ever from Google.

audacity audio editor

record and edit audio files

kdenlive video editor

non-linear video editing suite.

WPS Office for Linux

Office software include writer, spreadsheets and presentation.


Password manager. But I prefer LastPass.

youdao dict

This client really make me impressed. It is faster and simple than any other platform client. Launch it with Gnome do, and use it to check English word is a very happy work. Someone used to recommand me the StarDict, but I think youdao dict is a better choice for me.


Elegant, powerful, clean dock.

Or there is another choice Cairo Dock.

ntfs configuration tool

Install this tool using this command:

 sudo apt-get install ntfs-config

and you can find NTFS Configuration Tool in the menu. It is a very efficient tool to auto mount windows NTFS partitions. You can setup to auto-mount when your Linux mint start up. It is really useful if you have a second hard drive installed and you want it to auto-mount each time you restart your system.

smplayer or vlc

video player always need one. Personally, I like smplayer more.

Nuvola Player 3

You can follow the instruction on it’s official site. It was great, espcially when you want to listen to music at Google Play Music, or other cloud stream music. It support a lot of services, like Amazon Cloud Player, Play Music, Plex Music, Spotify, Tuneln, etc.


Birdie is beautiful Twitter client for GNU/Linux.

PPA (14.04) Birdie can be installed from our PPA, which provides automatic updates whenever we improve the application.

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:birdie-team/stable
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install birdie

from it official site:


all the detail information can be found at it’s official site.

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:mc3man/trusty-media
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install ffmpeg


Remote control application. I need it to help to connect my mac in lab and other Windows machine. You can download here. And because it is cross-platform. You can install in other OS and connect it easily.

Programming tools


Use apt-get search vim to search related vim packages, you will find several packages,like vim-gtk, vim-gnome etc. Install vim and vim-gtk package to install vim and gvim. And config my vim with my dotfile,


best version control system. And I am using SmartGit.



Sublime Text

Text Editor. Later I found Atom which is also great.


markdown editor.

eclipse with jdt and cdt

sometime need java and c++ IDE for test.


install boost library from source using the following code:

 sudo apt-get install libboost-all-dev

all boost library is located at /usr/include/boost

Android Studio

Check official site for more information.


Python IDE

ZeroBrane Studio



Sqlite manager



You can have your local weather forecast in desktop.

Desktop Capture

Screenshot and screencasting tools which saves me a lot of time.

I have created a list in Youtube, you can check it for information.

2015-10-24 linux , linux mint , applications

在 Linux 下安装字体

Most of computer fonts people using are TrueTpye fonts. TrueType fonts end with .ttf , which stand for TrueType Font. This tutorial shows how to install TrueType fonts in Linux (Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, etc).

General way to install TrueType fonts

All of the TrueType fonts are under /usr/share/fonts/truetype, simplest way is to copy ttf file to this directory and give it the right permission. For example, if you want to install Ubuntu font family manually. You can download the font file from official site.

In the terminal, download the package:


unzip the file into directory ubuntu-font-family-0.80


and then use copy command to copy all the files to /usr/share/fonts/truetype,/usr/share/fonts directory and sub directory need root to write, so you should add sudo before command. The -r paramater represent recursive, it means all the files under ubuntu-font-family-0.80 will be copied to the right place.

 sudo cp -r ubuntu-font-family-0.80/ /usr/share/fonts/truetype/

finally, you shoulde give this directory and all the ttf under this directory right permission. All the new fonts now can only be used by root. We need to change the permission to let all the users to use these fonts:

 sudo chmod 755 /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ubuntu-font-family-0.80/ -R

then, refresh the font cache to let system detect these fonts:

 fc-cache -f -v

Install new fonts only for current user

As I mentioned in the first part, if you copy the ttf file to /usr/share/fonts directory, all the users can use these new fonts. But if you only want to provide these fonts to specific user, like current login user , you can just copy the file to ~/.fonts directory. If there is no such directory, just create it. The ~ stand for current user’s home directory, full path is /home/<username>. So repeat the operation to install Ubuntu font family:

mkdir ~/.fonts
cp -r ubuntu-font-family-0.80/ ~/.fonts/
fc-cache -fv

Install microsoft core fonts

Microsoft Core Fonts include these fonts:

  • Andale Mono
  • Arial Black
  • Arial (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic)
  • Comic Sans MS (Bold)
  • Courier New (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic)
  • Georgia (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic)
  • Impact
  • Times New Roman (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic)
  • Trebuchet (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic)
  • Verdana (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic)
  • Webdings

Debian/Ubuntn/Linux Mint user just open terminal and run these command:

sudo apt-get install ttf-mscorefonts-installer

or Linux Mint user can find this package in the Software Manager, just search it and click install.

Install Chinese fonts

.ttf files are the English fonts, while .TTF files are Chinese fonts. If we check the C:\Windows\Fonts under Microsoft Windows, there are 3 kind of fonts. One is the .fon fonts, which is the DOS system font, and other two fonts are .ttf and .TTF. We can just make a copy of all .ttf and .TTF file and copy all the files to /usr/share/fonts/ directory under Linux. Although it is illegal under Microsoft’s TOC, but we can still do it. :)

If you dual boot your computer, mount the Windows and copy the files

sudo mkdir /usr/share/fonts/truetype/WindowsFonts
sudo cp -r /media/Windows/Fonts/*.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/WindowsFonts/
sudo cp -r /media/Windows/Fonts/*.TTF /usr/share/fonts/truetype/WindowsFonts/

Install open source Chinese fonts, like 文泉驿 - 微米黑 文泉驿 - 正黑

sudo apt-get install ttf-wqy-microhei ttf-wqy-zenhei

several Chinese font we can choose:

To check more about Chinese font visit Arch wiki


Install Software Manager under Linux Mint

Linux Mint user can find a font manager under Software Manager. It is really a cool tool to manager your fonts.

List all available fonts

fc-list is a quick and handy command to lists fonts and styles available on the system for applications using fontconfig. You can use fc-list to find out whether particular language font is installed or not.

To list all font faces:

$ fc-list

To lists font faces that cover Chinese language:

$ fc-list :lang=zh

Output will be all available Chinese fonts.

Fix WPS for Linux font missing error

After I installed WPS for Linux under Linux Mint 17.2, I met this problem, “系统缺失字体 symbol、wingdings、wingdings 2、wingdings 3、wedding”. According to the copyright, WPS for Linux doesn’t contains these five fonts. You can only find these five fonts and install them in the right place like I said before. One way to find these fonts is to find them in Microsoft Windows system. And another way is to download these files from Internet and install.

Install Korean fonts

Use following command to search Korean font

apt-cache search korean font

and use this command to install Korean font to linux:

sudo apt-get install fonts-unfonts-core fonts-unfonts-extra



  • Sans-serif 无衬线体 = 黑体:并不是具体一款字体,而是一类字体,选择它其实等于选择这类字体中优先级最高的那款字体。
  • Serif 衬线体 = 白体:同上
  • Monospace 等宽字体,意思是字符宽度相同:同上
  • 点阵字体 位图字体



For more information check Debian page Arch wiki and Ubuntu wiki

2015-10-21 linux , linux-mint , fonts , font , truetype

git presentation

之前做过一个简单的 git 的介绍,下面是 PPT 的摘录。

What is Git

Git is a free and open source distributed version control system(VCS) designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency.

Git 是一个分散式版本控制软件,最初由林纳斯·托瓦兹(Linus Torvalds)创作,于 2005 年以 GPL 发布。最初目的是为更好地管理 Linux 内核开发而设计。Linus Torvalds 自嘲的取名“git”,该词源自英国俚语,意思大约是“混账 1”。


Version Control Example

Microsoft Word 如果你用 Microsoft Word 写过长篇大论,那你一定有这样的经历:

想删除一个段落,又怕将来想恢复找不回来怎么办?有办法,先把当前文件“另存为……”一个新的 Word 文件,再接着改,改到一定程度,再“另存为……”一个新文件,这样一直改下去,最后你的 Word 文档变成了这样:


Undo Windows: Ctrl+z Mac: Command+z


Version control has a very long histroy.

  • Source Code Control System (SCCS)
  • 1972, closed source, free with Unix
  • Revision Control System (RCS)
  • 1982, open source
  • Concurrent Versions System (CVS)
  • 1986-1990, open source
  • Apache Subversion (SVN)
  • 2000, open source

BitKeeper SCM

  • 2000, closed source, proprietary
  • distributed version control
  • “community version” was free
  • used for source code of the Linux kernel from 2002-2005
  • Controversial to use proprietary SCM for an open source project
  • April 2005: the “community version” not free anymore

Git is born

  • April 2005
  • created by Linus Torvalds
  • replacement for BitKeeper to manager Linux kernel source code
  • distributed version control
  • open source and free software
  • compatible with Unix-like systems (Linux, Mac OS X, and Solaris) and Windows
  • faster than other SCMs (100x in some cases)

Git become popular, GitHub launched in 2008 to host Git repositories:

  • 2009: over 50,000 repositories, over 100,000 users
  • 2011: over 2 million repositories, over 1 million users


Git 是一种分布式版本控制,不需要服务器端软件也可运行

  • 不同用户维护自己的版本库,而不是和核心版本库交换数据
  • 追踪 “change sets” 或者 ”patches”
  • 无需网络,随时随地进行版本控制
  • 分支的新建、合并非常方便、快速,没有任何成本,基本不耗时

Who use Git?

anyone wanting to track edits

  • review a histroy log of changes made
  • view differences between versions
  • retrieve old versions

anyone needing to share changes with collaborators

anyone not afraid of command-line tools


  1. 只能跟踪文本文件的改动,二进制文件不行,也就是说 如果使用 Git 追踪 Word ,版本控制系统并不知道改动了那些行,只能知道二进制变化了。


    • HTML, CSS, JavaScript
    • PHP, Ruby, Ruby on Rails, Perl, Python, ASP
    • Java, C, C++, C#, Objective-C
    • ActionScript, CoffeeScript, Haskell, Scala, Shell scripts

    not as useful for tracking non-text files

    • images, movies, music, fonts
    • word processing files, spreadsheets, PDFs
  2. 编码问题,如果在多平台使用请千万使用 UTF-8 编码

    使用 Windows 的童鞋要特别注意: 千万不要使用 Windows 自带的记事本编辑任何⽂文本⽂文件。原因是 Microsoft 开发记事本的团 队使⽤用了⼀一 个非常弱智的⾏行为来保存 UTF-8 编码的⽂文件,他们⾃自作聪明地在每个⽂文件开头添 加了 0xefbbbf(⼗十六进制)的字符,你会遇到很多不可思议的问题,比 如,网页第一⾏行可 能会显⽰示⼀一个“?”,明明正确的程序⼀一编译就报语法错误,等等,都是由记事本的弱智⾏行 为带来的。建议你下载 Notepad++ 代替记事本,不但功能强⼤大,而且免费!记得把 Notepad++ 的默认编码设置为 UTF-8 without BOM 即可


  • Linux

sudo apt-get install git or sudo yum install git

  • mac

brew install git

  • windows

Git basic

在开始使用 Git 之前有些配置

git config --global "John Doe"  # 配置提交用户名
git config --global  # 配置提交邮箱

git init
git status
git add filename
# 暂存区
git commit -m “"
git log

commit message best practices

  • short single-line summary ( less then 50 characters 或者 小于 25 个汉字)
  • optionally followed by a blank line and a more complete description
  • keep each line to less than 72 characters
  • write commit messages in present tense, not past tense
    • “fix bug” or “fixes bug”, not “fixed bug”


git branch <branchname>
git checkout <branchname>
git checkout -b <branchname>

git push origin <branchname>

git push origin --delete <branchname>


git remote add origin
git push -u origin master
git remote show origin


git tag     # list all tags
git tag v0.9
git tag -a v1.0 -m “my version 1.0"
git show tag name #show tag details
git push origin tag name
git push origin --tags

git GUI




git config --global status
git config --global checkout
git config --global commit
git config --global branch
git config --global alias.unstage 'reset HEAD --'
git config --global alias.last 'log -1 HEAD'

GitLab server


2015-10-12 git , linux , version-control

Java 中时间相关处理工具类库 joda time

Java 中日期,时间处理类库 Joda time



最新的版本官网查看 1


5 个最常用的 date-time 类:

  • Instant - Immutable Class,用来表示时间轴上一个瞬时的点
  • DateTime - Immutable Class,用来替换 JDK 的 Calendar 类
  • LocalDate - Immutable Class,表示一个本地的日期,而不包含时间部分(没有时区信息), 适合表示出生日期
  • LocalTime - Immutable Class,表示一个本地的时间,而不包含日期部分(没有时区信息), 适合表示商店的每天开门 / 关门时间
  • LocalDateTime - Immutable Class,表示一个本地的日期-时间(没有时区信息)




表示时间间隔,是一个半开区间,包括开始时刻,但不包括结束时刻。结束时刻永远要大于或者等于开始时刻。有两个实现 Interval 和 MutableInterval


表示持续时间,用 milliseconds 表示,duration 通常从 interval 中获取。

instant  +  duration  =  instant


一段时间,通常比如三年五个月两天 7 小时。他和 Duration 的区别在于,Period 是不精确的(在 milliseconds 级别)。比如有一个月的时间段,那么在二月一号加上一个月会得到三月一号,而在三月一号加上一个月,会得到四月一号,但是这两个 duration(in milliseconds)是完全不一样的。

instant  +  period  =  instant

有两个实现 Period 和 MutablePeriod



DateTime dateTime1 = new DateTime();
DateTime dateTime2 = new DateTime(2015,11,11,0,0,0);
DateTime dateTime3 = new DateTime(1447171200000L);
DateTime dateTime4 = new DateTime(new Date());
DateTime dateTime5 = new DateTime("2015-11-11T00:00:00.000+08:00");


Joda Time 中的 LocalTime 表示的是一个没有日期的时间


Interval 和 Period

Joda-Time 为时间段的表示提供了支持。

  • Interval:保存了一个开始时刻和一个结束时刻,因此能够表示一段时间,并进行这段时间的相应操作
  • Period:保存了一段时间,比如:6 个月,3 天,7 小时这样的概念。可以直接创建 Period,或者从 Interval 对象构建。
  • Duration:保存了一个精确的毫秒数。同样地,可以直接创建 Duration,也可以从 Interval 对象构建。

JDK8 中的时间相关

因为 Joda Time 非常稳定可靠,在 JDK 8 以前成为了 Java 处理时间相关的事实标准,JDK 8 中引入了 java.time 等一组新 api 用来处理时间日期,遵守 JSR 310,弥补了 Java 在时间处理方面的不足。Joda-Time 的作者 Stephen Colebourne 和 Oracle 一起共同参与了这些 API 的设计和实现。

JDK 8 以前 Date 和 Calendar 类存在的问题:

  • 非线程安全,需要额外的代码来处理线程安全问题
  • 接口设计,之前的接口处理 day-to-day 操作困难
  • 时区相关时间,需要额外处理


  • Instant 时刻
  • Duration
  • LocalDate 日期,2015-01-01
  • LocalTime 时间
  • LocalDateTime 日期和时间 2015-01-01T14:02:43.455

基本上他们的接口定义都是 ofXX 来构造一个实例,而通过 parseXX 来将一个现有的时间戳转变成对应的实例。



2015-10-11 java , joda-time , jdk8

wget 常用命令

wget 是一个非常常用的下载命令,但其实 wget 非常强大,这里就列举一些很常用的选项。



wget -r -np
wget -r --no-parent --reject "index.html*"


  • -r 表示 recursively 递归下载
  • -np 或者 --no-parent 表示不延伸到父目录,当想要下载特定目录下的文件时,记得加上这个选项

当然如果你的目的非常单纯只是想备份网站,之前也写过一篇 Httrack 备份全站 的文章。


使用 -A 或者 -R

wget -A jpg,pdf http://site
wget --accept jpg,pdf http://site

wget -R "index.html" http://site


  • -A 或者 --accept 后面接逗号分割的后缀或者模式,表示下载接受的文件格式,或者符合正则表达式的内容
  • -R 或者 --reject 表示不下载匹配的



在使用 wget 备份网站目录时可能遇到网站路径编码下载到本地之后乱码的情况,这个时候需要使用 --restrict-file-names=nocontrol


有些时候可能要离线文档用来在本地浏览,这个时候需要用到 -k

wget --mirror --convert-links --adjust-extension --page-requisites
wget -mkEpnp


  • -m 或者 --mirror 镜像网站,这个选项会开启递归和时间戳,并且保持目录结构,等效于 -r -N -l inf --no-remove-listing
  • -k 或者 --convert-links 表示将连接转成 localhost,方便本地浏览
  • -E 或者 --adjust-extension 表示会根据文件的 MIME 类型,将一些文件调整为 HTML 等等后缀,方便在不同的 WEB 服务器中托管
  • -p 或者 --page-requisites 会将任何 HTML 页面显示需要的资源都下载下来,包括 images,sounds,css,js 等等


wget 使用选项 --limit-rate 来限制速度:

wget --limit-rate=423k

单位是 bytes per second,如果要表示 kiloBytes,在结尾加上 k .


使用 --tries=70 来自定义重试次数,默认情况下 wget 会重试 20 次。

2015-10-03 wget , curl , linux , linux-command , backup











2015-09-27 影评 , 韩国

Bash 学习笔记之基本使用

Bash 的前身 shell 是 Unix 系统下的命令行解释器,主要用于用户和系统交互。 Unix 系统上有很多 Shell,首个 Shell,Bourne Shell,1978 年推出,后来又演变出 C Shell,Bash 等不同版本的 Shell。

Bash 全称为 Bourne-Again Shell,是一个为 GNU 项目编写的的 Unix Shell。Bash 脚本功能强大,尤其是在处理循环或者批量任务时。Bash 是大多数 Linux 平台默认的 Shell,所以学好 Bash 是基础。

首选来看一下 Bash 的版本,输入下面命令


命令行编辑 Emacs mode vs Vi Mode

可以使用 set -o | egrep -w "(vi|emacs)" 命令查看,当前命令行编辑模式。

$ set -o vi
$ set -o|egrep -w "(vi|emacs)"
emacs           off
vi              on

All the above assume that bash is running in the default Emacs setting, if you prefer this can be switched to Vi shortcuts instead.

Set Vi Mode in bash:

$ set -o vi

Set Emacs Mode in bash:

$ set -o emacs

using set -o to check all the bash options.

Emacs 编辑模式

完整 Emacs 编辑模式快捷键,文档 link

Bash Keyboard Shortcuts 在绝大多数情况下一下快捷键可以直接使用

移动光标 Moving the cursor

在终端移动快捷键,下面几个快捷键在命令行中非常有用,尤其是当命令比较长时,在行前,行末快速切换能够提高不少效率。而如果要修改命令行中间内容,这时候组合使用 alt ctrl 和 b f 则能够快速定位到中间修改的内容,再进行修改。

Command Explain
Ctrl + a 移动到命令最前 Go to the beginning of the line (Home)
Ctrl + e 移动到行尾 Go to the End of the line (End)
Ctrl + p 上一个命令 Previous command (Up arrow)
Ctrl + n 下一个命令 Next command (Down arrow)
Alt + b 不删除命令的情况下,向前移动一个单词 Back (left) one word
Alt + f 向后一个单词 Forward (right) one word
Ctrl + b 光标向前移动一个字符 Backward
Ctrl + f 光标向后移动一个字符 Forward
Ctrl + xx 在行首和当前光标的位置来回切换 Toggle between the start of line and current cursor position

编辑 Editing

编辑相关的快捷键,对我而言 Ctrl + w 是一个非常常用的快捷键,当输入发生错误时,直接快速删除前一个单词再进行修正。

Command Explain
Ctrl + L Clear the Screen, similar to the clear command
Alt + Del Delete the Word before the cursor.
Alt + d Delete the Word after the cursor.
Ctrl + d Delete character under the cursor
Ctrl + h Delete character before the cursor (Backspace)
Ctrl + w Cut the Word before the cursor to the clipboard. 一般用来快速删除前一个单词,也可以用 Alt + Backspace
Ctrl + k Cut the Line after the cursor to the clipboard.
Ctrl + u Cut/delete the Line before the cursor to the clipboard. 一般用来快速清除当前输入命令
Alt + t Swap current word with previous
Ctrl + t Swap the last two characters before the cursor (typo).
Esc + t Swap the last two words before the cursor.
Ctrl + y Paste the last thing to be cut (yank)
Alt + u UPPER capitalize every character from the cursor to the end of the current word.
Alt + l Lower the case of every character from the cursor to the end of the current word.
Alt + c Capitalize the character under the cursor and move to the end of the word.
Alt + r Cancel the changes and put back the line as it was in the history (revert).
Ctrl + _ Undo
TAB Tab completion for file/directory names

For example, to move to a directory ‘sample1’; Type cd sam ; then press TAB and ENTER. type just enough characters to uniquely identify the directory you wish to open.

历史 History

查询 bash 命令历史,快速执行历史命令

Command Explain
Ctrl + r Recall the last command including the specified character(s)
searches the command history as you type.
Equivalent to : vim ~/.bash_history.
Ctrl + p Previous command in history (i.e. walk back through the command history)
Ctrl + n Next command in history (i.e. walk forward through the command history)
Ctrl + s Go back to the next most recent command.
(beware to not execute it from a terminal because this will also launch its XOFF).
Ctrl + o Execute the command found via Ctrl+r or Ctrl+s
Ctrl + g Escape from history searching mode
!! Repeat last command
!abc Run last command starting with abc
!abc:p Print last command starting with abc
!$ Last argument of previous command
ALT + . Last argument of previous command
!* All arguments of previous command
^abc­^­def Run previous command, replacing abc with def

进程控制 Process control


Command Explain
Ctrl + C Interrupt/Kill whatever you are running (SIGINT)
Ctrl + s Stop output to the screen (for long running verbose commands)
  Then use PgUp/PgDn for navigation
Ctrl + q Allow output to the screen (if previously stopped using command above)
Ctrl + D 退出当前 Shell Send an EOF marker, unless disabled by an option, this will close the current shell (EXIT)
Ctrl + Z Send the signal SIGTSTP to the current task, which suspends it.
To return to it later enter fg ‘process name’ (foreground).

最常使用的应该还是 Ctrl-a, Ctrl-e, Ctrl-f, Ctrl-b, Ctrl-l, Ctrl-h, Ctrl-w, Ctrl-k, Ctrl-u, Ctrl-y, Ctrl-r.

命令 说明
Ctrl-B 后移一个字符
Ctrl-F 向前移动一个字符
DEL 向后删除一个字符
Ctrl-D 向前删除一个字符
Ctrl-A 移到行首
Ctrl-E 移到行尾
Ctrl-K 向前删除到行尾
Ctrl-P 移到前一行
Ctrl-N 移到后一行
Ctrl-R 向后搜索
Ctrl-J 等同于 RETURN
Ctrl-L 清除屏幕,将当前行放到屏幕最上面
Ctrl-M 等同于 RETURN
Ctrl-O 等同于 RETURN 随后在显示历史命令中下一行
Ctrl-T 颠倒光标左右两个字符,将光标向前移一个
Ctrl-U 从光标位置开始删除行 ,向后删除到行首
Ctrl-V 引用插入

Vi 编辑模式

通过设置 set -o vi 进入 Vi 编辑模式,正常环境为输入模式,对命令进行修改则按 Esc。完整命令参考.

命令包括 h, l, w, b 等等 Vi 中使用的命令,可参考另外一篇 Vim 学习笔记

  • 通过按键 Esc , Ctrl+l(L lower case) ,clear screen。
  • Ctrl-w
  • Ctrl-u
  • Ctrl-k
  • Ctrl-y
  • Ctrl-r



最重要的 Bash 文件是 .bash_profile ,它在每次用户登陆系统时被读取 /etc/profile 。Bash 允许有 .bash_profile 两个同义文件, C Shell 的 .bash_login 以及 Bourne Shell 和 Korn Shell 的 .profile 。登录时三者中只有一个被读取,如果用户根目录下 .bash_profile 不存在,则 bash 依次查找 .bash_login , .profile.

.bash_profile 只被登录 shell 读取并执行,如果通过命令键入 Bash 启动一个新 Shell, 它就会读取 bashrc 中的命令。

.bash_logout 在每次 shell 退出时被读取并执行。

可以使用 source ~/.bashrc 来使配置文件立即生效。

修改 .bashrc 文件可以精确到对当前用户有效。修改 /etc/profile 对全局用户生效。



alias name=command

指定 name 是 command 的别名。在“=”两边没有空格,严格语法。



别名可以为命令创建方便的名字,它们实际上并不改变 shell 的行为。选项则不然。基本命令:

set -o optionname	- 号 开启
set +o optionname	+ 号 关闭

检查 bash 所有可选项,使用 set -o 打印所有列表。

shopt 选项

选项 含义
-p 显示可选设置及其当前取值
-s 设置
-u 失效
-o 允许选项名取值通过 set 命令 -o 选项定义


allexport           off
braceexpand         on
emacs               off
errexit             off
errtrace            off
functrace           off
hashall             on
histexpand          on
history             on
ignoreeof           off
interactive-comments     on
keyword             off
monitor             on
noclobber           on
noexec              off
noglob              off
nolog               off
notify              off
nounset             off
onecmd              off
physical            off
pipefail            off
posix               off
privileged          off
verbose             off
vi                  on
xtrace              off
选项 解释
emacs emacs 编辑模式
vi vi 编辑模式
ignoreeof 不允许单独使用 Ctrl-D 退出
noclobber 不允许输出重定向(>)覆盖已存在的文件
noglob 不允许扩展文件名通配符如*和?
nounset 试图使用未定义变量时给出错误


Shell 变量也是一个拥有取值的名字,bash 有一些内置的变量,shell 编程也可以自定义变量。按照惯例,内置变量名均为大写,当然也有两个例外。



引用变量,使用符号 $ , 单引号内部的变量会直接使用而不需要转义,而双引号内部变量需要转义

echo $varname

bash 有很多内置变量分布在各个配置文件中。


PATH 变量,帮助 shell 找到输入的命令。输入 echo $PATH 得到类似:

变量 含义
HOME 主目录
SECONDS 调用 shell 的秒数
BASH 正在运行的 shell 实例路径名
BASH_VERSION shell 版本号
BASH_VERSINFO shell 版本信息数组
PWD 当前目录
OLDPWD 最后一个 cd 命令前的目录

2015-09-26 linux , bash , vim

Linux学习笔记 User and Group






  • 账户名称
  • 密码,已被移到 /etc/shadow 目录中
  • UID
    • 0 代表“系统管理员”
    • 1~499 保留系统使用,1~99保留系统默认帐号,另外100~499 则保留给服务使用
    • 500~65535 一般用户使用,Linux 2.6.x 已经可以支持 2 的32次方减1 UID
  • GID
  • 用户信息说明
  • home dir
  • shell




  • 帐号名称
  • 密码,加密过,如果为* 或 ! 则表示这个帐号并不会用来登陆
  • 最近更改密码日期,1970年1月1号作为1
  • 密码不可更改天数
  • 密码需要重新更改天数
  • 密码更改期限前的警告期限
  • 密码过期的宽限时间
  • 帐号失效日期
  • 保留


root@linux ~#  useradd username



GROUP=100 #默认用户组
HOME=/home #默认Home目录
INACTIVE=-1 # /etc/shadow 内第7栏
EXPIRE= # /etc/shadow 内第8栏
SHELL=/bin/bash #默认shell
SKEL=/etc/skel #home目录内容数据参考




设置密码,直接 passwd 则是修改自己密码

root@Linux ~# passwd username





root@linux /# userdel [-r] username

-r 连同home目录一起删除






  • 用户组名称
  • 用户组密码 /etc/gshadow
  • GID
  • 支持的帐号名称

####有效用户组 查看已einverne用户身份登录,支持的用户组命令:

pi@linux / $ groups
pi adm dialout cdrom sudo audio video plugdev games users netdev gpio i2c spi input

使用命令 newgrp groupname 切换有效用户





  • 用户组名称
  • 密码栏,以 ! 开头表示无法登陆
  • 用户组管理员帐号
  • 用户组所属帐号



root@linux ~# groupadd groupname


调整 group 相关参数

root@linux ~# groupmod -g 103 -n groupname groupothername



root@linux ~# groupdel groupname

su & sudo

/etc/sudoers 文件,建议使用 visudo 编辑该文件

格式:用户帐号 登录主机 = (可变换的身份) 可执行的命令

einverne ALL = (ALL) ALL
%groupname ALL = (ALL) ALL
%groupname ALL = (ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL


change file group

chgrp users dirname/filename [-R]

chown [-R]

chown change file owner

chown root:root filename


change file property, SUID

  • number


    chmod [-R] xyz filename/dir

  • 符号

+加入 -除去 =设置
u user g group o others a all

2015-09-24 linux , user , group

Java collections

Collection 是接口,包含 List 和 Set 。List 有序,Set 无序不允许重复元素。

  • List 实现类有 LinkedList, ArrayList, Vector, Stack
  • Set 的实现类 HashSet, TreeSet。HashSet 依赖 HashMap,TreeSet 依赖 TreeMap。


List 接口下主要实现


动态数组,继承 AbstractList 实现了 List,RandomAccess,Cloneable, Serializable 等接口。

线程不安全,多线程使用 Vector 或者 CopyOnWriterArrayList

源码解读 基于 jdk 1.8

  • ArrayList 实际是通过数组来保存元素,构造时默认大小为 10,可设定
  • 当 ArrayList 容量不足时,ArrayList 会重新设置容量 int newCapacity = oldCapacity + (oldCapacity >> 1);
  • ArrayList 实现了 Cloneable 接口,意味着可以使用 .clone() 方法来创建全新 ArrayList
  • modCount 用来记录 List 被修改的次数,被 Iterator 使用,可以用来实现 fail-fast 异常,ArrayList 在修改时都会改动 modCount 值,该异常会在多线程中在一个线程中访问数组,另一个线程修改数组时抛出异常


LinkedList 双向链表,继承自 AbstractSequentialList,可以被当做堆栈,队列,双端队列,实现了 List,Deque,Cloneable,Serializable 等接口。


源码解读 jdk 1.8

  • 内部 Node 类,包含着要保存的元素,prev 和 next 指针
  • LinkedList 中重要的成员变量,first,last 和 size,first 和 last 分别表示链表的头和尾,size 是链表的长度
  • LinkedList 既然是链表,所以顺序访问会高效,反而随机访问效率降低,LinkedList 的 get 等根据索引来获取的方法,通过比较 index 和链表长度的一半比较,如果一半前则从头开始找,而一半后则从尾巴开始找
  • LinkedList 可以作为 FIFO,FILO 来使用


Vector 继承 AbstractList,实现了 RandomAccess,Cloneable, Serializable 接口,是一个列表。


  • 和 ArrayList 一样,默认的长度是 10
  • 重要的成员变量 elementData, elementCount, capacityIncrement
  • Vector 的线程安全使用过 synchronized 关键字来实现的,比如说

    public synchronized boolean add(E e) { modCount++; ensureCapacityHelper(elementCount + 1); elementData[elementCount++] = e; return true; }


  • 多线程中操作数组使用 Vector
  • 如果要快速随机访问应该选择 ArrayList
  • 如果要快速插入和删除 LinkedList


Map 是一个键值对映射接口,Map 不能包含重复键。


HashMap 继承自 AbstractMap 实现了 Map<K,V>, Cloneable, Serializable 接口。线程不安全。

HashMap 类有两个参数影响其性能:“初始容量” 和 “加载因子”。容量是哈希表中桶的数量,初始容量 只是哈希表在创建时的容量。加载因子是哈希表在其容量自动增加之前可以达到多满的一种尺度。

HashMap 中 key-value 的值都存在 Entry 的数组中 (Java 8 中 Node 结构)。

transient Node<K,V>[] table;

说到 HashMap,都知道 Java 中每一个 Object 都有一个 hashCode() 方法,该方法返回一个 int 值,相同的对象必须返回相同的 hash Code(不同的对象不一定要求返回不同的值). 在 HashMap 中 hashCode() 方法首先被用来计算 bucket 然后计算 index。


Buckets 是 HashMap 中的一个数组元素,它用来保存节点,节点可能有相同的 bucket。Buckets 的容量是不同的,bucket 的容量大致:

capacity = number of buckets * load factor

单一的一个 bucket 可以拥有超过一个 nodes,hashCode() 方法越好,那么 bucket 会利用的更好。

HashMap 中的 Index 计算

HashCode 会产生一组 int 数值,如果我们创建一个这个范围的数组,极有可能造成 outOfMemoryException。所以需要知道产生数组的一个最小大小:

index = hashCode(key) & (n-1)

n 是 bucket 的数值。


  • table 是一个 Entry[] 数组,单向链表
  • size 是 HashMap 大小,保存键值对数目
  • threshold 是阈值,判断是否需要调整容量,threshold= 容量*加载因子,当存储容量达到阈值,需要将 HashMap 容量加倍
  • loadFactor 加载因子
  • modCount 用来实现 fail-fast 机制
  • entrySet 键值对 Set

在上面的描述中,我们知道如果发生 hash 冲突,所有的节点都保存在一个 linked-list 中,那么最坏的时间复杂度可能是 O(n).

为了解决这个问题,Java 8 中 hash 元素当达到一个阈值之后使用了 balanced trees 而不是 linked list. 这意味着 HashMap 在达到一定数量之后将 Entry 对象转而存储到 balanced tree 中,而最坏的时间复杂度从 O(n) 降至 O(log n)


  • 直到 rehash 之前 put 和 get 的复杂度都是稳定的
  • 假设产生冲突,第二个节点会用 linked list 串起来
  • key 为 null 时 hash code 为 0

Java 8 中的 hash() 方法:

static final int hash(Object key) {
    int h;
    return (key == null) ? 0 : (h = key.hashCode()) ^ (h >>> 16);

为了解决哈希碰撞,将 put 到 HashMap 的 key 的 hashCode() 高位和地位综合考虑,在计算时亦或一下高低位(高 16 位异或低 16 位)。


Hashtable 继承 Dictionary,实现 Map, Cloneable, Serializable 接口。Hashtable 函数都是同步的,线程安全,key 和 value 都不能为 null。

Hashtable 和 HashMap 一样,也是通过“拉链法”来实现的。


TreeMap 是一个有序的 key-value 集合,通过红黑树实现

public class TreeMap<K,V>
    extends AbstractMap<K,V>
    implements NavigableMap<K,V>, Cloneable,

内部根据 key 的自然顺序排序,或者根据创建时提供的 Comparator 排序。基本操作包括 containsKey, get, put, remove 的时间复杂度是 log(n).

TreeMap 不是线程安全的。

内部 Entry 结构包含红黑树节点的 6 个组成部分

static final class Entry<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
    K key;
    V value;
    Entry<K,V> left;
    Entry<K,V> right;
    Entry<K,V> parent;
    boolean color = BLACK;


WeakHashMap 是弱键,当某个键不再正常使用时会被从 WeakHashMap 中自动移除。准确的来说,对于一个给定的键,并不能阻止垃圾回收器对该键的回收。

WeakHashMap 的 key 是弱键,通过 WeakReference 类型实现。

ReferenceQueue 是一个队列,保存被 GC 回收的弱键。

WeakHashMap 是不同步的,可以使用 Collections.synchronizedMap 来构造同步的 WeakHashMap。

Java 中的引用方式

在理解 WeakHashMap 之前首先要知道 Java 中的几种引用,Strong,Soft,和 Weak 引用。


Integer one = 1;

GC 不会随意回收强引用


Integer prime = 1;
SoftReference<Integer> soft = new SoftReference<Integer>(prime);
prime = null;

GC 只有在 JVM 及需内存时才会回收软引用


Integer prime = 1;
WeakReference<Integer> soft = new WeakReference<Integer>(prime);
prime = null;

GC 会频繁的回收弱引用内存,即使不是极其需要内存也会进行回收。

WeakHashMap 中就是用了 WeakReference 类型。


比如某些情况下需要在 value 中保存极大的内容,比如图片内容,那么会消耗极大的内存,而如果使用普通 HashMap 那么这些图片的内容不会轻易释放,这个时候就使用 WeakHashMap 比较合适。

hash 函数

hash 函数的目的是为了让 key 的 hash 尽量均匀的分布到 bucket 中

final int hash(Object k) {
  int h = k.hashCode();

  h ^= (h >>> 20) ^ (h >>> 12);
  return h ^ (h >>> 7) ^ (h >>> 4);


Set 的实现类基于 Map 实现

  • HashSet 通过 HashMap 实现
  • TreeSet 通过 TreeMap 实现


没有重复元素的集合,由 HashMap 实现,不保证顺序,允许使用 null。非同步。

public class HashSet<E>
    extends AbstractSet<E>
    implements Set<E>, Cloneable,


有序 Set 集合,基于 TreeMap 实现,非同步的

public class TreeSet<E> extends AbstractSet<E>
    implements NavigableSet<E>, Cloneable, {

Enumeration Vs Iterator


public interface Enumeration<E> {
    boolean hasMoreElements();
    E nextElement();

public interface Iterator<E> {
    boolean hasNext();
    E next();
    void remove();

Enumeration 只能够读取集合数据,不能修改;而 Iterator 能够删除

Iterator 支持 fail-fast 机制(多个线程对集合内容操作),而 Enumeration 不支持。

Comparable Vs Comparator

Comparable 是排序接口,一个类如果实现了 Comparable 接口,意味着该类支持排序。

public interface Comparable<T> {
    public int compareTo(T o);

通过 x.compareTo(y) 函数比较 x, y 大小,返回负数则 x < y, 返回 0 则 x=y,返回正数则 x>y

Comparator 是比较接口,如果要控制某个类的次序,而类本身不支持排序(没有实现 Comparable 接口)那么可以建立一个类比较器。

public interface Comparator<T> {
    int compare(T o1, T o2);
    boolean equals(Object obj);

Comparable 相当于“内部比较器”,而 Comparator 相当于“外部比较器”。如果你无法修改某个类来改变其实现,而又想要让他实现排序,那么只能够使用外部比较器了。

equals Vs ==

== 作用是判断两个对象地址是否相等,即判断两个对象是不是同一个对象。

equals 作用也是判断两个对象是否相等,但有两种情况:

  • 类没有覆盖 equals 方法,等价于 ==
  • 类覆盖了 equals 方法,若相同,则返回 true


2015-09-20 java , jdk , design-pattern , collection



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